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The individual or organization that registers a specific domain name with a registrar. This individual or organization holds the right to use that specific domain name for a specified period of time, provided certain conditions are met and the registration fees are paid. This person or organization is the "legal entity" bound by the terms of the Domain Name Registration Agreement with the registrar. Note that the NSI Registry provides direct services to registrars only, not Internet end-users. The registry database contains only domain name service (DNS) information (domain name, name server names and name server Internet Protocol [IP] numbers) along with the name of the registrar that registered the name and basic transaction data. It does not contain any domain name registrant or contact information. Registrars provide direct services to registrants.

A registrar provides direct services to domain name registrants. The registrar database contains customer information in addition to the DNS information contained in the Registry database. Registrars process name registrations for Internet end-users and then send the necessary DNS information to a Registry for entry into the centralized Registry database and ultimate propagation over the Internet. There are multiple registrars providing registration services through the NSI Registry. (See

Registrar License and Agreement
This is a contract that registrars must enter into with the VeriSign Global Registry Services in order to be able to provide registration services through the VeriSign Global Registry. (See

Registrar Whois
A searchable database maintained by registrars that contains information about networks, networking organizations, domain names, and the contacts associated with them for the com, org, net, edu, and ISO 3166 country code top-level domains. Also, the protocol, or set of rules, that describes the application used to access the database. Each registrar implements the Whois protocol and maintains a separate and distinct Whois database for its respective domain name registrations.

An Internet domain name registry is an entity that receives domain name service (DNS) information from domain name registrars, inserts that information into a centralized database and propagates the information in Internet zone files on the Internet so that domain names can be found by users around the world via applications such as the world wide web and email. VeriSign Global Registry Services is the exclusive registry for the .com, .net and .org top level domains.

Registry Agreement
An agreement executed on November 10, 1999 between ICANN and Network Solutions. The agreement contains the terms and conditions under which Network Solutions is authorized to be the exclusive registry for all second-level domain names in the .com, .net and .org top level domain names. (See

Registry Registrar Protocol (RRP)
A protocol for the registration and management of second level domain names and associated name servers in both Top Level Domains (TLDs) and country code Top Level Domains (ccTLDs). This protocol was developed by the Network Solutions Registry for use within the Shared Registration System. RRP is a TCP-based, 7-bit US-ASCII text protocol that permits multiple registrars to provide second level Internet domain name registration services in the top level domains (TLDs) administered by a TLD registry.

Registry Whois
This is the authoritative Whois service for all second-level Internet domain names registered in the .com, .net and .org top-level domains. This service is available to anyone. For all registered second-level domain names in .com, .net or .org, information as illustrated in the following example is displayed:
     Domain Name: NSIREGISTRY.NET
     Whois Server:
     Referral URL:
     Name Server: NS.NETSOL.COM
Note that no end-user contact information is displayed because VeriSign Global Registry Services does not maintain that information. (See

The top of the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy. Often referred to as the "dot."

Root Server
A machine that has the software and data needed to locate name servers that contain authoritative data for the top-level domains (e.g., root servers know which name servers contain authoritative data for com, net, fr, uk. etc.). The root servers are, in fact, name servers and contain authoritative data for the very top of the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy. Currently, technical specifications limit the number of root servers to 13. These machines are currently located around the globe, in the U.S., the U.K., Sweden, and Japan.

Registry Registrar Protocol

The term used to describe the process by which domain names are matched with corresponding Internet Protocol (IP) numbers. "Resolution" is accomplished by a combination of computers and software, referred to as name servers that use the data in the Domain Name System to determine which IP numbers correspond to a particular domain name.

Secondary Server
A name server that will be used in addition to and as a backup for the primary name server for a domain name. Names and IP addresses of secondary servers are provided by registrars when they register names with VeriSign Global Registry.

Second Level Domain Name
In the Domain Name System (DNS), the next lower level of the hierarchy underneath the top-level domains. In a domain name, that portion of the domain name that appears immediately to the left of the top-level domain. For example, the nsiregistry in Second level domain names are often descriptive and have come to be used increasingly to represent businesses and other commercial concerns on the Internet.

Shared Registration System
The Shared Registration System developed by the NSI Registry permits multiple registrars to provide Internet domain name registration services within the top-level domains (TLDs) administered by VeriSign Global Registry Services. The System (a protocol and associated hardware and software) includes the following subsystems: a database server subsystem, a registration subsystem ensuring equivalent access to the registry by all registrars; a billing subsystem; a systems development and testing subsystem; a TLD zone file generation subsystem; and a Whois subsystem. The System is consistent with, and supportive of, the provisions of the Statement of Policy on Domain Name System administration, Management of Internet Names and Addresses, 63 Fed Reg. 31741 (1998) (the "White Paper"), as well as Amendment No. 11 to Cooperative Agreement NCR-92-18742 between the U.S. Government and Network Solutions.

Start of Authority

Shared Registration System

SSL is an acronym for "Secure Socket Layer", a security protocol that provides communications privacy over the Internet. The protocol allows client/server applications to communicate in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, or message forgery.

Start of Authority (SOA) Resource Record
A type of record used in the distributed database that is the Domain Name System (DNS) to indicate that a particular name server contains authoritative data for a particular domain.

Supporting Organizations
The ICANN Supporting Organizations serve as advisory bodies to the Board, with a primary responsibility of developing and recommending substantive policies regarding those matters falling within their specific responsibilities.

Top Level Domain

TLD Zone
A file that contains data describing a portion of the domain name space for a specific top-level domain. Zone files contain the information needed to resolve domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers. Zone files contain domain names, their associated name server names and the IP addresses for those name servers.

TLD Zone Files
Files that contain data describing a portion of the domain name space for specific top level domains. Zone files contain the information needed to resolve domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers. Zone files contain domain names, their associated name server names and the IP addresses for those name servers. The NSI Registry updates TLD zone files for the .com, .net and .org TLDs two times per day.

Top Level Domain
In the Domain Name System (DNS), the highest level of the hierarchy after the root. In a domain name, that portion of the domain name that appears furthest to the right. For example, the net in

2CO is an authorized retailer for GeoNIC.NET
.COM .NET   
Registration for holders of Ukrainian Trade Marks


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